When you need to capture as-built conditions there are multiple methodologies to consider. A few of the high-tech options growing in popularity are LiDAR scanning & Photogrammetry to assist in the collection of data. Both methods produce point clouds with vectorized data which means everything can be measured.
Outsourcing Drone Services for Efficiency and Cost Savings
Can an architect design his own structural system or HVAC system? Yes, he can. Can the same architect also go out to the site and dig the foundations and nail the framing together? Sure. He can do all of those things. But, is it really the best use of his time and abilities?
Every year as the new Autodesk releases roll out, Revit devotees like me wonder how it will improve our work. As we all know, Revit is used by multiple AEC disciplines, therefore only a percentage of the new features may apply to your workflows.
No worries – big improvements come in all sizes.
Revit is not a drafting software.
Revit is not AutoCAD.
CAD* is not BIM (*as understood in normal conversation).
CAD* processes Do Not Work In BIM.
Any part of “traditional” or drafting-based approaches will fail in BIM.
Yes, any and every… if you can find one that works let me know @JayZallan on the tweeties…
We are going to focus on Detailing; one area where value can be generated if applied comprehensively; namely Using Detail Components and never Lines.
If you are going to callout, or point to, or list in any way, or even look at now or sometime in the future; Use Detail Components for items (never lines), and Tags and/or Keynotes in place of text, to provide “the words and numbers.”
Toward a Zen of Revit: Less Text = Less Mistakes
Details using lines, arcs, circles & text are a disaster, but disasters land on a continuum and there are worse “details in Revit blunders:”
- Linking .dwgs in (10% to 30% longer project time)
- Importing .dwgs in (15% to 40% longer project time)
- Converting .dwg linework to Revit linework (10% to 25% longer project time).
I understand that most offices have many hundreds of standard details or typical details that are used… With that in mind the workflow entails recreating (yep, recreate) all of the existing, ‘appropriate’ details in Revit natively, using only Detail Components for items that will be called out and specified… then use Keynotes and Tags instead of text when detailing. The goal will be overall and long term saving of time, money and will raise project and informational quality. The quality of the data “between” details using this setup will payoff for years, literally… not doing it will add hidden losses to every project, also for years.
Assess | Plan | Create | Validate
OK onto those details sans lines…
How-To Create a Line Based Family
FWIW: I am not talking about lines within ‘sketch modes’ etc. either; in fact the detail component that we will be creating in this posting will ultimately use a line (though at the family level, so it doesn’t count lol)… The logic is: ‘When the line-based family is used to make a detail component, it may work and look like a simple line but it has become far more than that… it becomes a ‘Data Enlightened Object.’
In the example below we are looking at a waterproofing membrane (image 1) to be specified.
-Perhaps even create and use Detail Components for generic items such as “WALL PER PLANS”, etc., when no wall is needed 3 dimensionally… Oh and YES, the wall below would NOT have the waterproofing membrane on the exterior of the finish… I merely use it as example.
As described above, in the stead of using lines and pointing to them with non associative text we will rather build Line Based Detail Components or Detail Component line based (Image 2), as the family template is so named (depending on what year you read this).
Image 2 (Revit Circa 1842)
The procedures to ‘draw’ with these Line Based Detail Components once in a project are similar to pulling lines around; with a few main differences:
1) Depending on how built these can add “offset” for more productivity… or nest these together to make one family satisfy any dynamic future need (we will cover this in a future posting).
2) When there is a fundamental change in a detail component all the other instances will change, in every detail, on every sheet… the Tags & Keynotes too!!! Thus we leverage one Power of BIM: Change it once and it changes everywhere.
The following step-by-step should be clear if you have a decent understanding of Revit Family Creation.
Making a Line Based Detail Component
1) Using the Big “R”, at the top/left of Revit (AKA: the Application Button) choose the flyout arrow next to NEW, then choose FAMILY.
2) Select the Detail Component line based template (Image 2).
3) Create a line in the new family.
-there, I said it… my rule is technically broken if you are thinking how I usually think…though in this case I am not being that literal (ahh, the contradictions of communication).
4) Lock it to the REF PLANES (Image 3).
5) Flex the length
If all is working then move on, if not try again…
6) Save the family (use a good naming convention & library location, right? But you knew that…).
OK ready for the proof? Here we go…
These 4 details (Image 4) are the same, right? Not really… one uses lines, the other three share a Detail Component of the line based variety…
Image 4 (Looks can be deceiving)
In the next image there is a change to the Detail Component from being “Bituminous Sheet Waterproofing” to “6 Mil. Polyethylene”… Note the text becomes instantly wrong… in a lot of places…
Image 5 (Change can be great)
Now extrapolate this type of change out to the multitude of components in the numerous details you may have and you can probably see the benefit of taking a little extra time up-front to find and create your Detail Components (line based or otherwise), AS DETAIL COMPONENTS for every specific case necessary… Word to the wise: If you have never looked at how many detail components there are in the OOTB Revit library, go bounce there asap!
Again, Revit is not a drafting software.
As the use of technology is becoming more and more prevalent in the construction industry you may be asking yourself how you can implement such a huge change in your organization effectively. With more than 70% of change initiatives failing to take hold, how do you avoid falling into that majority? Here are some tips and tricks to help ensure that you are primed for success.
The BIG Picture – Autodesk® Forge, the Development Platform for the Future
Autodesk University (AU) 2017 highlighted Autodesk® Forge as the proven foundation for creating connective technology.
With Forge API resources, the AEC industry is no longer limited by multiple product silos. Now, everyone can develop custom applications and create connected workflows to reduce repetitive tasks and improve project insight.
Autodesk provides numerous cloud-based solutions to the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry facilitating collaboration between project teams throughout the project lifecycle. One solution is BIM 360 Team, a project-centric tool intended to overcome the multidiscipline collaboration challenges during the design and development phase of a project.
What is considered the industry standard of LODs?
Today, there is no official LOD Standard, or a requirement for one in the U.S. Several organizations are providing LOD Specification Workbooks to help with the adoption effort. These organizations include:
Any given project should follow the standard being used by the client and the designer.
To conclude the 4 part topic of Construction Design Phases vs BIM Levels of Development, confirm the following prior to starting on any project:
- Is the project governed by Design Phases or BIM LODs?
- If governed by BIM LODs, are the BIM files available for contractor use?
If BIM files are available, be specific about requesting the file types needed.
- Consider Autodesk’s Navisworks as an industry standard for reviewing and extracting quantities and other data. Typically Navisworks file formats (*.nwd) are sufficient.
- The Navisworks Simulate software would likely be the minimum requirement for design simulation and project review.
- Is there an LOD Specification Workbook?
- If so, is it available for contractors use?
- Is the contractor bound to the LODs for their cost proposals for each defined portion of work?
- Is there a contractual agreement between the Owner/Client and the Architect/Designer that is defined around the LODs the prime contractor, and their subcontractors, may also be bound to?
- What is the prime contractor’s cost estimating expectations for each of the various subcontractors? And, will there be different LODs for each trade?
- Bottom line, be sure you are clear about how a project is defined and measured for progress and completeness by confirming the use of “Construction Design Phases,” OR “BIM Levels of Development.”
Useful Links for BIM Levels of Development and 5D BIM Cost Estimating:
- BIM Forum
- BIM Forum 2016 Level of Development Specification Workbook
- Autodesk Article – There is no such thing as an LOD Model Number!
- LOD Planner
- Autodesk Navisworks
- eTakeoff for 5D BIM
- Sage Estimating – A practical approach to 5D BIM
Sage Estimating Consultant
5D BIM Estimating/eTakeoff
What are the Definitions of BIM Levels of Development?
The following reflects the general consensus of the most widely used LOD Definitions:
- LOD 100: A Conceptual Model where parameters like area, height, volume, location and orientation are defined.
- LOD 200: An Approximate Geometry Model where elements are modeled with approximate quantities, size, shape, location and orientation.*
- LOD 300: Precise Geometry Modeling and shop drawings where elements are defined with specific assemblies, precise quantity, size, shape, location and orientation.*
- LOD 350: Includes Model Detail and element that represent how building elements interface with various systems and other building elements with graphics and written definitions.
- LOD 400: Model elements are modeled as Specific Assemblies with Complete Fabrication, assembly, and detailing information in addition to precise quantity, size, shape, location and orientation.*
- LOD 500: As-Built Elements are modeled as constructed assemblies for Maintenance and operations.*
*Can include non- geometric information to the model elements.
How do you use BIM LOD Specification Workbooks?
BIM LOD Specification Workbooks are often required by the client and updated with each revision of a project’s BIM file. If so, it’s important for the prime and subcontractors to base the related progression of their cost estimates and schedules accordingly. The example below is created by the BIM Forum.
The BIM Specification is not a set of requirements as to what is modeled, when, or by whom. Rather it is a language by which users can define these requirements for their own firms or projects. A BIM Specification provides the following benefits:
- Helps teams including owners to specify BIM deliverables and get a clear picture of what will be included in a BIM deliverable.
- Helps design managers explain to their teams the information and detail that needs to be provided at various points in the design process, and to track progress of their models.
- Allows downstream users to rely on specific information in models they receive from others.
- Provides a standard that can be referenced by contracts and BIM execution plans.
View or download a copy of the LOD Specification Worksheet:
BIM Forum 2016 Level of Development Specification Workbook (Excel)
We will conclude this 4 part topic on Construction Design Phases vs BIM Levels of Development in Article 4.
Sage Estimating Consultant
5D BIM Estimating/eTakeoff
It’s important for contractors to understand the various LOD’s for each trade at any point so they can provide related cost and scheduling that is measured by the same design standards being used by the client and the designer. The understanding of how complete a model element is effects not only the Cost Estimates and Schedules, but also Constructability.
LODs – Levels of Development
Definition (BimForum.org) – The Level of Development (LOD) Specification is a reference that enables practitioners in the AEC Industry to specify and articulate with a high level of clarity, the content and reliability of Building Information Models (BIMs) at various stages in the design and construction process.
Level of Development vs. Level of Detail
LOD is sometimes interpreted as Level of Detail rather than Level of Development. There are important differences:
- Level of Detail is essentially how much detail is included in the model element.
- Level of Development is the degree to which the element’s geometry and attached information has been thought through – the degree to which project team members may rely on the information when using the model.
- In essence, Level of Detail can be thought of as input to the element, while Level of Development is reliable output.
Does the project contractor utilize the designer’s LODs or Design Phases?
The LODs are not defined by design phases. Rather, design phase completion, as well as any other milestone or deliverable, can be defined through the LOD language. There are several important reasons for this approach:
- There is currently no detailed standard for the design phases.
- Building systems progress from concept to precise at different rates, so at any given time different elements will be at different points along this progression.
- Design Phases are often utilized by the Prime Contractor as “Design Milestones.” These Milestones are utilized by the contractor’s estimators and schedulers. Their subcontractors should use LODs specific to their trade.
- LOD’s – Typically Utilized by Designers
We will continue this 4 part topic on Construction Design Phases vs BIM Levels of Development in our next Article 3.
Sage Estimating Consultant
5D BIM Estimating/eTakeoff